The Bosnian Kingdom was a true feudal medieval state, according to it’s political system and topography. It was firstly mentioned in the 10th century, which expanded and progressed in 12th century until its complete fall in 1463., when the kingdom was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Richest peak was established in the 1377. by the king Tvrtko Kotromanic I, who played a major role in the Balkan Peninsula with the progress of kingdom’s territory and economic development.

Geographically, Bosnian Kingdom was located in the very heart or central position of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina, prolonged to the current Croatian Dalmatian-Adriatic coast, excluding the part of medieval ex. Republic of Dubrovnik .

Term ‘’Bosnia’’ was derived from the Indo-European word ‘’Bosana’’, which means ‘Water’, where 262 rivers, 100 lakes and great number of mountains and hills are met. These natural gifts were used strategically to defend the king and the kingdom by constructing numerous medieval fortresses. The strategy was to use tops of the hills, near the rivers or waterfalls and construct an open-air fortress with canons around it. Precisely, if an another empire tries to conquer, they need firstly to cross the river, then climb the hill with avoiding all canon shots from the fortresses.

We can now conclude that the medieval fortresses were core to protect the establishment and progress of the area. In the following text, we will introduce you with 5 main fortresses of the Bosnian Kingdom.


The city of Jajce got its name from the Bosnian word ‘Jaje’, which means an ‘Egg’, as the whole city is round shaped, like the shape of an egg. It is located in the very center of the ex. Bosnian Kingdom, where two rivers are crossing, Pliva and Vrbas, with a stunning waterfall from Pliva river. Above the two rivers is a rounded hill, on which the fortress of Jajce was established. A true open-air nature terrace and natural museum. The construction of the fortress was done in 3 phases. Firstly mentioned at the end of 13th century, but mainly constructed in the 14th century by orders of King Tvtrko I, around 1395. The second phase started between the end of the 14th century and beginning of 15th century, under the rules of King Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. The king managed to establish tombs and catacombs for his royal family. After his death in 1416., the fortress was inherited to King Stjepan Ostoje, who ordered his feuds to carve a kingdom emblem on the main fortress gate. The emblem was an imitation of King Tvrtko I shield and lily flowers on it, which was the historical symbol and flag of the kingdom. The Jajce fortress easily became the top residency for main kings of the Bosnian Kingdom until it was conquered by Ottomans in the mid of 15th century, 1463. The fortress today is a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, known as core historical evidence of ex. Bosnian Kingdom existence and establishment.


Cazin is an old medieval town located in the west-northern bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the home of Ostrožac fortress, positioned above a beautiful green Una river, usually called the ‘Pearl of Bosnia’. It is believed that the fortress dates back from the 13th century and was the place of Babonić royal family during the Bosnian Kingdom. In 1952. the fortress was taken by the Ottoman empire, who easily established their province in the ex. Bosnian Kingdom area. Besides being a national heritage of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina, the fortress has an impressive architectural design with a stunning castle on its top.


Počitelj is a 14th century beautiful medieval city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Located on the left side of Neretva river, the main symbol of Herzegovina to protect the south-western border of the Bosnian Kingdom. Related to it, known as ‘The place of battles’ among many empires and kingdoms, prolonged with a beautiful fortress and white-grey stones. The fortress was built by the orders of Tvrtko Stjepan I in 1383. Interesting historical fact is that the fortress was firstly documented by kings in 1444., Alphonso V and Friedrich III, following with occupation of Austro-Hungarian empire and control of the fortress from 1463. until 1471., when the Ottomans managed to conquer until 1878. The city of Počitelj is home of the oldest Herzegovinian families, with a number of around 800 inhabitants today.


Travnik is known as the city of knights, located 50 miles southern from the King’s town of Jajce. Historically, it is the youngest fortress of the ex. Bosnian Kingdom, not precise, but built somewhere in the beginning of 15th century from the orders of King Kotromanić II. The main purpose for the construction of Travnik fortress was to defend the King’s town of Jajce from the Ottoman occupation. Despite the idea, the Ottomans managed in the same year of 1463. to conquer Travnik and the King’s town of Jajce, where both stayed under their control until 1878. In those years, the Austo-Hungarians took control of the fortress and named it ‘Kaštel’. After the WWI, in 1918., the name was back to Travnik fortress. Today, it lays on a slope of a hill above the spring of ‘Plava Voda’, as an unique touristic attraction of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


A very small city of Srebrenik is located on the eastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, near Tuzla city. Srebrenik is mainly visited and recognized due to its silver colored medieval fortress and green river of Tinje. The fortress has no exact historical date of construction, but was firstly mentioned in 14th century in an economic medieval trade agreement between the King Stjepan Kotromanic II with representatives of the ex. Dubrovnik Republic. Then, Srebrenik fortress was sold for 500 ‘Dubrovnik perperas’ (golden medieval coins). Only 60 years after the agreement, in 1393., the fortress was taken by the Austro-Hungarian empire until 1512., when the Ottomans took full control of it. Today, it is a stunning historical sight of Bosnia and Herzegovina that was, after many battles, rebuilt numerous times in the past.


Art and Tours Sarajevo is the only travel agency in our country that offers a Medieval tour of Bosnian Kingdom. It takes visitors back in time to explore the life of Bosnian kings, their knights, medieval weaponry, middle-ages clothes, crafts, architecture, religious institutions and catacombs. This tour will represent how the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina started and emerged. Our official tour guides will lead you for an unique life memory.